**UNIT I: NUMBER SYSTEMS **

**REAL NUMBERS **

1. Review of representation of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers on the number line. Representation of terminating / non-terminating recurring decimals on the number line through successive magnification. Rational numbers as recurring/ terminating decimals.

2. Examples of non-recurring/non-terminating decimals. Existence of non-rational numbers (irrational numbers) such as 2, 3and their representation on the number line. Explaining that every real number is represented by a unique point on the number line and conversely, viz. every point on the number line represents a unique real number.

3. Existence of x for a given positive real number x and its representation on the number line with geometric proof.

4. Definition of nth root of a real number.

5. Recall of laws of exponents with integral powers. Rational exponents with positive real bases (to be done by particular cases, allowing learner to arrive at the general laws.)

6. Rationalization (with precise meaning) of real numbers of the type 1 abx + and 1 xy + (and their combinations) where x and y are natural number and a and b are integers.

**UNIT II: ALGEBRA **

**POLYNOMIALS **

Definition of a polynomial in one variable, with examples and counter examples. Coefficients of a polynomial, terms of a polynomial and zero polynomial. Degree of a polynomial. Constant, linear, quadratic and cubic polynomials. Monomials, binomials, trinomials. Factors and multiples. Zeros of a polynomial. Motivate and State the Remainder Theorem with examples. Statement and proof of the Factor Theorem. Factorization of ax2 + bx + c, a ? 0 where a, b and c are real numbers, and of cubic polynomials using the Factor Theorem. Recall of algebraic expressions and identities. Verification of identities: (x+y+z)2 = x 2 + y2 + z2 + 2xy + 2yz + 2zx, (x ± y)3 = x3 ± y3 ± 3xy (x ± y), x3 ± y3 = (x ± y) (x2 ± xy + y2), x3 + y3 + z3 — 3xyz = (x + y + z) (x2 + y2 +z2 — xy — yz — zx) and their use in factorization of polynomials.

**UNIT III : GEOMETRY **

**INTRODUCTION TO EUCLID'S GEOMETRY **

History - Geometry in India and Euclid's geometry. Euclid's method of formalizing observed phenomenon into rigorous Mathematics with definitions, common/obvious notions, axioms/postulates and theorems. The five postulates of Euclid. Equivalent versions of the fifth postulate. Showing the relationship between axiom and theorem, for example: (Axiom) 1. Given two distinct points, there exists one and only one line through them.

(Theorem) 2. Two distinct lines cannot have more than one point in common.

**LINES AND ANGLES **

1. If a ray stands on a line, then the sum of the two adjacent angles so formed is 180O and the converse. 2. If two lines intersect, vertically opposite angles are equal. 3. Results on corresponding angles, alternate angles, interior angles when a transversal intersects two parallel lines. 4. Lines which are parallel to a given line are parallel. 5. The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180O. 6. If a side of a triangle is produced, the exterior angle so formed is equal to the sum of the two interior opposite angles.

**TRIANGLES **

1.Two triangles are congruent if any two sides and the included angle of one triangle is equal to any two sides and the included angle of the other triangle (SAS Congruence).

2.Two triangles are congruent if any two angles and the included side of one triangle is equal to any two angles and the included side of the other triangle (ASA Congruence).

3. Two triangles are congruent if the three sides of one triangle are equal to three sides of the other triangle (SSS Congruence).

4.Two right triangles are congruent if the hypotenuse and a side of one triangle are equal (respectively) to the hypotenuse and a side of the other triangle. (RHS Congruence)

5.The angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal.

6. The sides opposite to equal angles of a triangle are equal.

7. Triangle inequalities and relation between ‘angle and facing side' inequalities in triangles.

**UNIT IV: COORDINATE GEOMETRY **

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

The Cartesian plane, coordinates of a point, names and terms associated with the coordinate plane, notations, plotting points in the plane.

**UNIT V: MENSURATION **

**AREAS **

Area of a triangle using Heron's formula (without proof) and its application in finding the area of a quadrilateral.

**UNIT II: ALGEBRA**

** LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES**

Recall of linear equations in one variable. Introduction to the equation in two variables. Focus on linear equations of the type ax+by+c=0. Prove that a linear equation in two variables has infinitely many solutions and justify their being written as ordered pairs of real numbers, plotting them and showing that they lie on a line. Graph of linear equations in two variables. Examples, problems from real life, including problems on Ratio and Proportion and with algebraic and graphical solutions being done simultaneously.

**UNIT III: GEOMETRY **

**QUADRILATERALS **

1. The diagonal divides a parallelogram into two congruent triangles.

2. In a parallelogram opposite sides are equal, and conversely.

3. In a parallelogram opposite angles are equal, and conversely.

4. A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if a pair of its opposite sides is parallel and equal.

5. In a parallelogram, the diagonals bisect each other and conversely.

6. In a triangle, the line segment joining the mid points of any two sides is parallel to the third side and in half of it and its converse.

**AREA **

Review concept of area, recall area of a rectangle.

1. (Prove) Parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels have the same area.

2.(Motivate) Triangles on the same (or equal base) base and between the same parallels are equal in area.

**CIRCLES**

Through examples, arrive at definition of circle and related concepts-radius, circumference, diameter, chord, arc, secant, sector, segment, subtended angle.

1. Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the center and (motivate) its converse.

2. The perpendicular from the center of a circle to a chord bisects the chord and conversely, the line drawn through the center of a circle to bisect a chord is perpendicular to the chord.

3. There is one and only one circle passing through three given non-collinear points.

4. Equal chords of a circle (or of congruent circles) are equidistant from the center (or their respective centers) and conversely.

5. The angle subtended by an arc at the center is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle.

6. Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal.

7. If a line segment joining two points subtends equal angle at two other points lying on the same side of the line containing the segment, the four points lie on a circle.

8. The sum of either of the pair of the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180° and its converse.

**CONSTRUCTIONS **

1. Construction of bisectors of line segments and angles of measure 60o, 90o, 45o etc., equilateral triangles.

2. Construction of a triangle given its base, sum/difference of the other two sides and one base angle.

3. Construction of a triangle of given perimeter and base angles.

**UNIT V: MENSURATION **

**SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES **

Surface areas and volumes of cubes, cuboids, spheres (including hemispheres) and right circular cylinders/cones.

**UNIT VI: STATISTICS **

Introduction to Statistics: Collection of data, presentation of data — tabular form, ungrouped / grouped, bar graphs, histograms (with varying base lengths), frequency polygons. Mean, median and mode of ungrouped data.

**UNIT VII: PROBABILITY **

History, Repeated experiments and observed frequency approach to probability. Focus is on empirical probability. (A large amount of time to be devoted to group and to individual activities to motivate the concept; the experiments to be drawn from real - life situations, and from examples used in the chapter on statistics).

**Materials **

**Unit I: Matter-Nature and Behaviour**

Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics - shape, volume, density; change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation.

Nature of matter : Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogenous and homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions.

**Unit II: Organization in the Living World**

Cell - Basic Unit of life : Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles and cell inclusions; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes - basic structure, number.

Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism:

Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (only four types of tissues in animals; Meristematic and Permanent tissues in plants).

**Moving Things, People and Ideas **

**Unit III: Motion, Force and Work**

Motion: Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, derivation of equations of motion by graphical method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion.

Force and Newton’s laws : Force and Motion, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Inertia of a body, Inertia and mass, Momentum, Force and Acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of Momentum, Action and Reaction forces.

Gravitation: Gravitation; Universal Law of Gravitation, Force of Gravitation of the earth (gravity), Acceleration due to Gravity; Mass and Weight; Free fall.

**Food **

**Unit V: Food Production**

Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management; Use of fertilizers and manures; Protection from pests and diseases; Organic farming.

**Materials **

**Unit I: Matter-Its Nature and Behaviour**

Particle nature, basic units : Atoms and molecules. Law of constant proportions. Atomic and molecular masses.

Mole Concept : Relationship of mole to mass of the particles and numbers. Valency. Chemical formula of common compounds.

Structure of atom: Electrons, protons and neutrons; Isotopes and isobars.

Theme: The World of the Living (23 Periods)

**Unit II: Organization in the Living World**

Biological Diversity: Diversity of plants and animals - basic issues in scientific naming, basis of classification. Hierarchy of categories / groups, Major groups of plants (salient features) (Bacteria, Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms). Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates upto phyla and chordates upto classes).

Health and Diseases: Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, their causes and manifestation. Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and Protozoans) and their prevention; Principles of treatment and prevention. Pulse Polio programmes.

**Moving Things, People and Ideas **

**Unit III: Motion, Force and Work**

Floatation: Thrust and Pressure. Archimedes’ Principle; Buoyancy; Elementary idea of Relative Density.

Work, energy and power: Work done by a Force, Energy, power; Kinetic and Potential energy; Law of conservation of energy.

Sound: Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound; echo and SONAR.

Structure of the Human Ear (Auditory aspect only).

** Natural Resources **

**Unit IV: Our Environment**

Physical resources : Air, Water, Soil.

Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating temperatures; movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India.

Air, water and soil pollution (brief introduction). Holes in ozone layer and the probable damages.

Bio-geo chemical cycles in nature: Water, Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen.

**Unit 1: India and the Contemporary World - I**

**Events and processes:**

In this unit the focus is on three events and processes that have in major ways shaped the identity of the modern world. Each represents a different form of politics, and a specific combination of forces. One event is linked to the growth of liberalism and democracy, one with socialism, and one with a negation of both democracy and socialism.

** I. The French Revolution:**

(a)The Ancient Regime and its crises. (b) The social forces that led to the revolution. (c) The different revolutionary groups and ideas of the time. (d) The legacy. (Compulsory Chapter-1)

**II. Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution:**

(a)The crises of Tzarism. (b) The nature of social movements between 1905 and 1917. (c) The First World War and foundation of Soviet state. (d) The legacy.

**III. Nazism and the Rise of Hitler:**

(a)The growth of social democracy (b) The crises in Germany. (b) The basis of Hitler’s rise to power. (c) The ideology of Nazism. (d) The impact of Nazism.

**Map Work - **Theme one only

**Unit 2: Contemporary India - I**

** India - Size and Location & Physical Features of India:** relief, structure, major physiographic unit..

**Drainage:** Major rivers and tributaries, lakes and seas, role of rivers in the economy, pollution of rivers, measures to control river pollution.

Map Work

**Unit 3: Democratic Politics - I**

**Democracy in the Contemporary World & What is Democrac**y? Why Democracy?:

What are the different ways of defining democracy? Why has democracy become the most prevalent form of government in our times? What are the alternatives to democracy? Is democracy superior to its available alternatives? Must every democracy have the same institutions and values?

**3. Constitutional Design:**

How and why did India become a democracy?

How was the Indian constitution framed? What are the salient features of the Constitution? How is democracy being constantly designed and redesigned in India?

**Unit 4: Economics**

**The Story of Village Palampur:** Economic transactions of Palampore and its interaction with the rest of the world through which the concept of production (including three factors of production (land, labour and capital) can be introduced.

**People as Resource: **Introduction of how people become resource / asset; economic activities done by men and women; unpaid work done by women; quality of human resource; role of health and education; unemployment as a form of non utilisation of human resource; sociopolitical implication in simple form. (Chapter 2)

** Livelihoods, Economies and Societies:**

The themes in this section will focus on how different social groups grapple with the changes in the contemporary world and how these changes affect their lives.

Any one theme of the following:

**Forest Society and Colonialism:**

(a)Relationship between forests and livelihoods. (b) Changes in forest societies under colonialism.

Case studies : Focus on two forest movements one in colonial India (Bastar) and one in Indonesia.

**Pastoralists in the Modern World:**

(a)Pastoralism as a way of life. (b) Different forms of pastoralism. (c) What happens to pastoralism under colonialism and modern states?

Case studies: Focus on two pastoral groups, one from Africa and one from India.

**Peasants and Farmers:**

(a) Histories of the emergence of different forms of farming and peasant societies.

(b) Changes within rural economies in the modern world.

**Case studies: **focus on contrasting forms of rural change and different forms of rural societies (expansion of large-scale wheat and cotton farming in USA, rural economy and the Agricultural Revolution in England, and small peasant production in colonial India)

Map Work Based on theme 4/5/6.

**Everyday Life, Culture and Politics:**

The themes in this unit will consider how issues of culture are linked up to the making of contemporary world.

Any one of the following:

**VII. History and Sport: The Story of Cricket:**

(a) The emergence of cricket as an English sport. (b) Cricket and colonialism. (c) Cricket nationalism and de-colonialization.

**VIII. Clothing: A Social History:**

(a) A short history of changes in clothing. (b) Debates over clothing in colonial India. (c) Swadeshi and the movement for Khadi.

**Unit 2: Contemporary India - I**

**Climate: Factors influencing the climate;**

monsoon- its characteristics, rainfall and temperature distribution; seasons; climate and human life.

**5. Natural Vegetation and Wild Life:** Vegetation types, distribution as well as altitudinal variation, need for conservation and various measures. Major species, their distribution, need for conservation and various measures.

**6. Population**: Size, distribution, age-sex composition, population change-migration as a determinant of population change, literacy, health, occupational structure and national population policy : adolescents as under-served population group with special needs.

Map Work Unit 3: Democratic Politics - I

**4. Electoral Politics:**

Why and how do we elect representatives? Why do we have a system of competition among political parties? How has the citizens’ participation in electoral politics changed? What are the ways to ensure free and fair elections?

**5. Working of Institutions:**

How is the country governed? What does Parliament do in our democracy? What is the role of the President of India, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers? How do these relate to one another?

**6. Democratic Rights**

Why do we need rights in a constitution? What are the Fundamental Rights enjoyed by the citizen under the Indian constitution? How does the judiciary protect the Fundamental Rights of the citizen? How is the independence of the judiciary ensured?

**Unit 4: Economics**

**3. Poverty as a Challenge**: Who is poor (through two case studies: one rural, one urban); indicators; absolute poverty (not as a concept but through a few simple examples)-why people are poor ; unequal distribution of resources; comparison between countries; steps taken by government for poverty alleviation.

**4. Food Security in India:** Source of Foodgrains, variety across the nation, famines in the past, the need for self sufficiency, role of government in food security, procurement of foodgrains, overflowing of granaries and people without food, public distribution system, role of cooperatives in food security (foodgrains, milk and vegetables ration shops, cooperative shops, two-three examples as case studies)

ADDITIONAL SUBJECTS

(A) MUSIC

(B) PAINTING (CODE NO. 049)

(C) COMMERCE

(D) HOME SCIENCE (CODE NO. 064)

(E) FOUNDATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY(FIT)

(CODE No. 165)

(F) INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)

(CODE NO. 166)

(G) NATIONAL CADET CORPS (Code No. 076)

HEALTH & PHYSICAL EDUCATION SYLLABUS (Code No. : 506)

HEALTH EDUCATION CLASS IX

• Meaning and nature of health, ecological concept of health, interdependence of physical, mental, emotional and social dimensions of health, factors and conditions influencing health, importance of health, meaning, purpose, principles and methods of health education; role of media in Health Education.

• Environmental conditions in villages, towns and slums in relation to the health status of people, waste disposal practices, measures to prevent pollution, compost pits, soakage pits, sanitary latrines, sources of safe drinking water, municipal water supply system, housing.

• Relationship of personal and environmental health practices with prevention of diseases and health promotion, cultural practices and health.

• Major accidents which cause deaths in rural and urban areas, factors responsible for accidents, general principles for prevention of common accidents, safety rules related to making fires, using stoves/cooking gas, using electricity, climbing stairs, crossing roads, boarding means of transport, cycling, swimming, playing, storing medicines and poisonous chemicals, practicing crafts, working in laboratories and using electrical and mechanical gadgets and machines, measures to remove accident hazards.

• First-aid measures for cuts, wounds, sprains, strains, continuous bleeding, fractures, bites and stings, drowning, fainting, shock, burns: Principles of first-aid, home nursing and skills in dealing with specific situations.

• Factors and conditions affecting nutritional status of an individual, nutritional needs of the body in terms of calories and nutrients, low-cost, locally available sources of food rich in these nutrients, nutritive values of commonly used foodstuff, balanced diet-its importance and requirements according to age, sex, occupation, pregnancy and geographical location, principles of diet planning, deficiency diseases and their prevention.

**Unit - I: Introduction to Physical Education**

• Meaning and Concept of Physical Education

• Aims and Objectives of Physical Education

Physical Development

Mental Development

Social Development

Emotional Development

Neuro-Muscular Development

• Changing Trends in Physical Education

**Unit - II: Physical Fitness**

• Meaning and Concept

• Components of Physical Fitness

Speed

Strength

Endurance

Flexibility

Coordinative Ability

• Development of Physical Fitness through Games and Sports

**Unit - III: Measurement of Growth**

• Measurement of Height & Weight

Body Mass Index

• Body Composition (Lean Body Mass, Fat Percentage)

• Formulas for 2 sites/3 sites

• Waist and Hip Ratio

**Unit - IV: First Aid Measures**

• Meaning and Concept

• Introduction to general Sports Injuries

Soft Tissue

Bone and Joint Dislocation

• PRICER and its Effects

**Unit - V: Sociological Aspects of Physical Education**

• Meaning and Concept of sports culture, society

• Role of Family, School in Sports Socialization

• Role of Society in Sports Socialization

**Unit - VI: Physical Activity and Differently abled Children**

• Physical Education Programmes for Physical Challenged

• Physical Education Programmes for Visually Impaired

• Physical Education Programmes for Dumb and Deaf

**Unit - VII: Community Recreation**

• Meaning and Concept of Recreation

• Recreational activities for different age groups

• Recreational activities for family.

**Unit - VIII: Sports and Human Resources**

• Role of Sports in creating fit citizens

• Fit citizen as an asset for the family, society and nation

• Fit citizen and productivity

**Unit - IX: Adventure Sports**

• Meaning and Objective

• Introduction to the concept of Camping and Tracking

• To organize Site, Materials required and safety measures

**Practical**

• Athletics:30/50 mtrs dash, Middle distance, Jumps

• Fitness Tests: Fitness test for class IX should be conducted on the basis of the AAPHER test and record should be maintained (50 Mtrs dash, Pull ups, Flexed arm hang, Sit up foe I min, Shuttle run 10×4 mtrs, Standing broad jump, 9/12 run and walk)

• Any two games: Students are required to play two games out of all the listed sports:

• Volleyball,• Football,• Handball,• Hockey,• Basketball,• Gymnastics,• Kabaddi,• Kho-Kho

**READING**

1. read silently at varying speeds depending on the purpose of reading;*1

2. adopt different strategies for different types of text, both literary and non-literary;

3. recognise the organization of a text;

4. identify the main points of a text;

* Objectives which will not be tested in a formal examination

5. understand relations between different parts of a text through lexical and grammatical cohesion devices.

6. anticipate and predict what will come next in a text;*

7. deduce the meaning of unfamiliar lexical items in a given context;

8. consult a dictionary to obtain information on the meaning and use of lexical items;*

9. analyse, interpret, infer (and evaluate) the ideas in the text;

10. select and extract from a text information required for a specific purpose (and record it in note form)

11. transcode information from verbal to diagrammatic form;

12. retrieve and synthesise information from a range of reference material using study skills such as skimming and scanning;

13. interpret texts by relating them to other material on the same theme (and to their own experience and knowledge); and

14. read extensively on their own.

**WRITING**

1. express ideas in clear and grammatically correct English, using appropriate punctuation and cohesion devices;

2. write in a style appropriate for communicative purposes;

3. plan, organise and present ideas coherently by introducing, developing and concluding a topic;

4. write a clear description (e.g., of a place, a person, an object or a system);

5. write a clear account of events (e.g., a process, a narrative, a trend or a cause-effect relationship);

6. compare and contrast ideas and arrive at conclusions;

7. present an argument, supporting it with appropriate examples;

8. use an appropriate style and format to write letters (formal and informal),biographical sketches, dialogues, speeches, reports, articles,e-mails and diary entries;

9. monitor, check and revise written work;

10. expand notes into a piece of writing;

11. summarise or make notes from a given text; and

**LISTENING**

1. adopt different strategies according to the purpose of listening (e.g., for pleasure, for general interest,for specific information);

2. use linguistic and non-linguistic features of the context as clues to understanding and interpreting what is heard (e.g., cohesion devices, key words, intonation, gesture, background noises);

3. listen to a talk or conversation and understand the topic and main points;

4. listen for information required for a specific purpose, e.g., in radio broadcast, commentaries, airport and railway station announcements;

5. distinguish main points from supporting details, and relevant from irrelevant information;

6. understand and interpret messages conveyed in person or by telephone;

7. understand and respond appropriately to directive language, e.g., instruction, advice, requests and warning; and

8. understand and interpret spontaneous spoken discourse in familiar social situations.

**SPEAKING**

1. speak intelligibly using appropriate word stress, sentence stress and intonation patterns;

2. adopt different strategies to convey ideas effectively according to purpose, topic

and audience (including the appropriate use of polite expressions);

3. narrate incidents and events, real or imaginary in a logical sequence;

4. present oral reports or summaries; make announcements clearly and confidently;

5. express and argue a point of view clearly and effectively;

6. take active part in group discussions, showing ability to express agreement or

disagreement, to summarise ideas, to elicit the views of others, and to present own ideas;

7. express and respond to personal feelings, opinions and attitudes;

8. convey messages effectively in person or by telephone;

9. frame questions so as to elicit the desired response, and respond appropriately to questions; and

10. participate in spontaneous spoken discourse in familiar social situations.

**GRAMMAR**

1. Verbs

Tenses:

• present/past forms

• simple/continuous forms

• perfect forms

• future time reference

• modals

• active and passive voice

• subject-verb concord

• non-finite verb forms (infinitives and participles)

2. Sentence Structure

• connectors

• types of sentences

• affirmative/interrogative sentences negation

• exclamations

• types of phrases and clauses

- finite and non-finite subordinate clauses

- noun clauses and phrases

- adjective clauses and phrases

- adverb clauses and phrases

• indirect speech

• comparison

• nominalisation

3. Other Areas

• determiners

• pronouns

• prepositions

**LITERATURE**

1 Character, as revealed through

•appearance and distinguishing features

• socio-economic background,

• action/events,

• expression of feelings,

• speech and dialogues.

2 Plot/Story/Theme, emerging through main events,

• progression of events and links between them;

• sequence of events denoting theme.

3 Setting, as seen through time and place, socio-economic and cultural background, people, beliefs and attitudes.

4 Form

• rhyme

• rhythm

• simile

• metaphor

• pun

• repetition

**NOTE**: The information taken from Central Board of Secondary Education(CBSE) at cbse.nic.in, is represented here in a user-friendly way for convenience of students. User must refer CBSE for current status of information.