## CBSE class X MATHEMATICS SYLLABUS (CODE NO. 041)

### COURSE STRUCTURE MATHE (FIRST TERM) CLASS X

UNIT I: NUMBER SYSTEMS
1. REAL NUMBERS
Euclid’s division lemma, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic - statements after reviewing work done earlier and after illustrating and motivating through examples, Proofs of irrationality of 2,3,5. Decimal representation of rational numbers in terms of terminating/non-terminating recurring decimals.
UNIT II: ALGEBRA
1. POLYNOMIALS
Zeros of a polynomial. Relationship between zeros and coefficients of quadratic polynomials. Statement and simple problems on division algorithm for polynomials with real coefficients.
2. PAIR OF LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
Pair of linear equations in two variables and graphical method of their solution, consistency/inconsistency.
Algebraic conditions for number of solutions. Solution of a pair of linear equations in two variables algebraically - by substitution, by elimination and by cross multiplication method. Simple situational problems. Simple problems on equations reducible to linear equations.
UNIT III: GEOMETRY
1. TRIANGLES
Definitions, examples, counter examples of similar triangles.
1. (Prove) If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect the other two sides in distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the same ratio.
2. (Motivate) If a line divides two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, the line is parallel to the third side.
3. (Motivate) If in two triangles, the corresponding angles are equal, their corresponding sides are proportional and the triangles are similar.
4. (Motivate) If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, their corresponding angles are equal and the two triangles are similar.
5. (Motivate) If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of another triangle and the sides including these angles are proportional, the two triangles are similar.
6. (Motivate) If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse, the triangles on each side of the perpendicular are similar to the whole triangle and to each other.
7. (Prove) The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares of their corresponding sides.
8. (Prove) In a right triangle, the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.
9. (Prove) In a triangle, if the square on one side is equal to sum of the squares on the other two sides, the angles opposite to the first side is a right angle.
1. INTRODUCTION TO TRIGONOMETRY
Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right-angled triangle. Proof of their existence (well defined); motivate the ratios whichever are defined at 0o and 90o. Values (with proofs) of the trigonometric ratios of 300, 450 and 600. Relationships between the ratios.
2. TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES
Proof and applications of the identity sin2A + cos2A = 1. Only simple identities to be given. Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles.
UNIT V: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY
1. STATISTICS
Mean, median and mode of grouped data (bimodal situation to be avoided). Cumulative frequency graph.

### COURSE STRUCTURE MATHE (SECOND TERM) CLASS X

UNIT II: ALGEBRA
Standard form of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, (a ≠ 0). Solutions of quadratic equations (only real roots) by factorization, by completing the square and by using quadratic formula. Relationship between discriminant and nature of roots.
Situational problems based on quadratic equations related to day to day activities to be incorporated.
4. ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS
Motivation for studying Arithmetic Progression Derivation of the nth term and sum of the first n terms of A.P. and their application in solving daily life problems.
UNIT III: GEOMETRY
2. CIRCLES
Tangent to a circle at, point of contact
1. (Prove) The tangent at any point of a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact.
2. (Prove) The lengths of tangents drawn from an external point to a circle are equal.
3. CONSTRUCTIONS
1. Division of a line segment in a given ratio (internally).
2. Tangents to a circle from a point outside it.
3. Construction of a triangle similar to a given triangle.
UNIT IV: TRIGONOMETRY
3. HEIGHTS AND DISTANCES : Angle of elevation, Angle of Depression. (8) Periods
Simple problems on heights and distances. Problems should not involve more than two right triangles. Angles of elevation / depression should be only 30°, 45°, 60°.
UNIT V: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY
2. PROBABILITY
Classical definition of probability. Simple problems on single events (not using set notation).
UNIT VI: COORDINATE GEOMETRY
1. LINES (In two-dimensions) (14) Periods
Review: Concepts of coordinate geometry, graphs of linear equations. Distance formula. Section formula (internal division). Area of a triangle.
UNIT VII: MENSURATION
1. AREAS RELATED TO CIRCLES
Motivate the area of a circle; area of sectors and segments of a circle. Problems based on areas and perimeter / circumference of the above said plane figures. (In calculating area of segment of a circle, problems should be restricted to central angle of 60°, 90° and 120° only. Plane figures involving triangles, simple quadrilaterals and circle should be taken.)
2. SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES
(i) Surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of the following: cubes, cuboids, spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinders/cones. Frustum of a cone.
(ii) Problems involving converting one type of metallic solid into another and other mixed problems. (Problems with combination of not more than two different solids be taken.)

## SCIENCE SYLLABUS (Code No. 086 / 090)

### COURSE STRUCTURE SCIENCE CLASS X-First Term

Theme: Materials
Unit I: Chemical Substances - Nature and Behaviour
Chemical reactions: Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications of a balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction.
Acids, bases and salts: Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH– ions, General properties, examples and uses, concept of pH scale (Definition relating to logarithm not required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of Sodium Hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris.
Metals and non metals: Properties of metals and non-metals; Reactivity series; Formation and properties of ionic compounds; Basic metallurgical processes; Corrosion and its prevention.
Theme: The World of the Living
Unit II: World of Living
Life processes: ‘Living Being’. Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals.
Control and co-ordination in animals and plants: Tropic movements in plants; Introduction of plant hormones; Control and co-ordination in animals: Nervous system; Voluntary, involuntary and reflex action; Chemical co-ordination: animal hormones.
Theme: How Things Work
Unit IV: Effects of Current
Electric current, potential difference and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric
power, Interrelation between P, V, I and R.
Magnetic effects of current : Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming’s Left Hand Rule. Electromagnetic induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule, Direct current. Alternating current : frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.
Theme: Natural Resources
Unit V: Natural Resources
Sources of energy: Different forms of energy, conventional and non-conventional sources of energy: Fossil fuels, solar energy; biogas; wind, water and tidal energy; Nuclear energy. Renewable versus non-renewable sources of Energy.

### COURSE STRUCTURE SCIENCE CLASS X-Second Term

Theme: Materials
Unit I: Chemical Substances - Nature and Behaviour
Carbon compounds: Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon. Homologous series. Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes), difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical properties of carbon compounds (combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents.
Periodic classification of elements: Need for classification, Modern periodic table, gradation in properties, valency, atomic number, metallic and non-metallic properties.
Theme: The World of the Living
Unit II: World of Living
Reproduction: Reproduction in animals and plants (asexual and sexual) reproductive health-need and methods of family planning. Safe sex vs HIV/AIDS. Child bearing and women’s health.
Heredity and Evolution: Heredity; Mendel’s contribution- Laws for inheritance of traits: Sex determination: brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution.
Theme: Natural Phenomena  Unit III: Natural Phenomena
Reflection of light by curved surfaces; Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required), magnification.
Refraction; Laws of refraction, refractive index.
Refraction of light by spherical lens; Image formed by spherical lenses; Lens formula (Derivation not required); Magnification. Power of a lens; Functioning of a lens in human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses.
Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life.
Theme: Natural Resources
Unit V: Natural Resources
Conservation of natural resources.
Management of natural resources. Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wild life; Coal and Petroleum conservation. Examples of people’s participation for conservation of natural resources.
Regional environment: Big dams: advantages and limitations; alternatives, if any. Water harvesting. Sustainability of natural resources.
Our environment: Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.

## SOCIAL SCIENCE SYLLABUS(CODE NO. 087)

### COURSE STRUCTURE SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS X-First Term

Unit 1: India and the Contemporary World-II
Sub-unit 1.2: Livelihoods, Economies and Societies:
Any one of the following themes:
The making of Global World: (a) Contrast between the form of industrialization in Britain and India. (b) Relationship between handicrafts and industrial production, formal and informal sectors. (c) Livelihood of workers. Case studies : Britain and India.
The Age of Indutrialisation: (a) Patterns of urbanization (b) Migration and the growth of towns. (c) Social change and urban life. (d) Merchants, middle classes, workers and urban poor.
Case Studies: London and Bombay in the nineteenth and twentieth century.
Work, Life and Leisure: (a) Expansion and integration of the world market in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. (b) Trade and economy between the two Wars. (c) Shifts after the 1950s. (d) Implications of globalization for livelihood patterns.Case study : The post War International Economic order, 1945 to 1960s.
Sub-unit 1.3 : Everyday Life, Culture and Politics Any one of the following themes:
Print Culture and the Modern World:
(a) The history of print in Europe. (b) The growth of press in nineteenth century India. (c) Relationship between print culture, public debate and politics.
Novels, Society and History:
(a) Emergence of the novel as a genre in the west. (b) The relationship between the novel and changes in modern society. (c) Early novels in nineteenth century India. (d) A study of two or three major writers.
(Chapter 8)
Unit 2: Contemporary India - II
1. Resources and Development: Types - natural and human; Need for resource planning, natural resources, land as a resource, soil types and distribution; changing land-use pattern; land degradation and conservation measures.
2. Forest and Wild Life Resources: Types and distribution, depletion of flora and fauna; conservation and protection of forest and wild life.
3. Water Resources: Sources, distribution, utilisation, multi-purpose projects, water scarcity, need for conservation and management, rainwater harvesting. (One case study to be introduced)
4. Agriculture: Types of farming, major crops, cropping pattern, technological and institutional reforms; their impact; contribution of Agriculture to national economy-employment and output.
Map work
Unit 3: Democratic Politics II
1&2.Power Sharing & Federalism:
Why and how is power shared in democracies? How has federal division of power in India helped national unity? To what extent has decentralisation achieved this objective? How does democracy accommodate different social groups?
3&4.Democracy and Diversity & Gender Religion and Caste:
Are divisions inherent to the working of democracy? What has been the effect of caste on politics and of politics on caste? How has the gender division shaped politics? How do communal divisions affect democracy?
Unit 4: Understanding Economic Development
1. Development: The traditional notion of development; National Income and Per-capita Income. Growth of NI - critical appraisal of existing development indicators (PCI, IMR, SR and other income and health indicators) The need for health and educational development; Human Development Indicators (in simple and brief as a holistic measure of development.
The approach to this theme: Use case study of three states (Kerala, Punjab and Bihar) or take a few countries (India, China, Sri Lanka and one developed country)
2. Sectors of the Indian Economy: *Sectors of Economic Activities; Historical change in sectors; Rising importance of tertiary sector; Employment Generation; Division of Sectors- Organised and Unorganised; Protective measures for unorganised sector workers.
Unit 5: Disaster Management-only through project work and assignments.
l Tsunami
l Safer Construction Practices
l Survival Skills
l Alternate Communication systems during disasters
l Sharing Responsibility

### COURSE STRUCTURE SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASS X- Term-II

Unit 1: India and the Contemporary World-II
In Sub-unit 1.1 students are required to choose any two themes. In that sub-unit, theme 3 is compulsory and for second theme students are required to choose any one from the first two themes.
In Sub-units 1.2 and 1.3 students are required to choose any one theme from each. Thus all students are required to study four themes in all.
Sub-unit 1.1 : Events and processes: Any two of the following themes:
1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe:
(a) The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s. (b) The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc. (c) General characteristics of the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy, Germany and Greece.
2. The Nationalist Movement in Indo - China: Factors Leading to Growth of Nationalism in Indo-China
(a)French colonialism in Indo-China. (b) Phases of struggle against the French. (c) The ideas of Phan Dinh Phung, Phan Boi Chau, Nguyen Ac Quoc (d) The second world war and the liberation struggle. (e) America and the second Indo-China war.
3. Nationalism in India:
(a) First world war, Khilafat, Non-Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movement. (b) Salt Satyagraha. (c)Movements of peasants, workers, tribals. (d) Activities of different political groups.
Map work based on theme 3 only.
Unit 2: Contemporary India - II
5. Minerals and Energy Resources: Types of minerals, distribution, use and economic importance of minerals, conservation, types of power resources: conventional and non- conventional, distribution and utilization, and conservation.
6. Manufacturing Industries:
Types, spatial distribution, contribution of industries to the national economy, industrial pollution and degradation of environment, measures to control degradation. (One case study to be introduced)
7. Life Lines of National Economy
Map work
Unit 3: Democratic Politics II
Popular Struggles and Movements & Political Parties: How do struggles shape democracy in favour of ordinary people? What role do political parties play in competition and contestation? Which are the major national and regional parties in India? Why have social movements come to occupy large role in politics?
Outcomes of Democracy:
Can or should democracy be judged by its outcomes? What outcomes can one reasonably expect of democracies? Does democracy in India meet these expectations? Has democracy led to development, security and dignity for the people? What sustains democracy in India?
8. Challenges to Democracy:
Is the idea of democracy shrinking? What are the major challenges to democracy in India? How can democracy be reformed and deepened? What role can an ordinary citizen play in deepening democracy?
Unit 4: Understanding Economic Development
3. Money and Credit: Role of money in an economy: Historical origin; Formal and Informal financial institutions for Savings and Credit - General Introduction; Select one formal institution such as a nationalized commercial bank and a few informal institutions; Local money lenders, landlords, self help groups, chit funds and private finance companies.
4. Globalisation and the Indian Economy: What is Globalisation (through some simple examples); How India is being globalised and why; Development Strategy prior to 1991. State Control of Industries : Textile goods as an example for elaboration; Economic Reforms
1991; Strategies adopted in Reform measures (easing of capital flows; migration, investment flows); Different perspectives on globalisation and its impact on different sectors; Political Impact of globalisation.
5. Consumer Rights: How consumer is exploited (one or two simple case studies) factors causing exploitation of consumers; Rise of consumer awareness; how a consumer should be in a market; role of government in consumer protection.
l Tsunami
l Safer Construction Practices
l Survival Skills
l Alternate Communication systems during disasters
l Sharing Responsibility

## ENGLISH COMMUNICATIVE SYLLABUS (CODE NO.:101)

### COURSE STRUCTURE ENGLISH CLASS X-First Term

1. read silently at varying speeds depending on the purpose of reading;*1
2. adopt different strategies for different types of text, both literary and non-literary;
3. recognise the organization of a text;
4. identify the main points of a text;
* Objectives which will not be tested in a formal examination
5. understand relations between different parts of a text through lexical and grammatical cohesion devices.
6. anticipate and predict what will come next in a text;*
7. deduce the meaning of unfamiliar lexical items in a given context;
8. consult a dictionary to obtain information on the meaning and use of lexical items;*
9. analyse, interpret, infer (and evaluate) the ideas in the text;
10. select and extract from a text information required for a specific purpose (and record it in note form)
11. transcode information from verbal to diagrammatic form;
12. retrieve and synthesise information from a range of reference material using study skills such as skimming and scanning;
13. interpret texts by relating them to other material on the same theme (and to their own experience and knowledge); and
14. read extensively on their own.
WRITING
1. express ideas in clear and grammatically correct English, using appropriate punctuation and cohesion devices;
2. write in a style appropriate for communicative purposes;
3. plan, organise and present ideas coherently by introducing, developing and concluding a topic;
4. write a clear description (e.g., of a place, a person, an object or a system);
5. write a clear account of events (e.g., a process, a narrative, a trend or a cause-effect relationship);
6. compare and contrast ideas and arrive at conclusions;
7. present an argument, supporting it with appropriate examples;
8. use an appropriate style and format to write letters (formal and informal),biographical sketches, dialogues, speeches, reports, articles,e-mails and diary entries;
9. monitor, check and revise written work;
10. expand notes into a piece of writing;
11. summarise or make notes from a given text; and
LISTENING
1. adopt different strategies according to the purpose of listening (e.g., for pleasure, for general interest,for specific information);
2. use linguistic and non-linguistic features of the context as clues to understanding and interpreting what is heard (e.g., cohesion devices, key words, intonation, gesture, background noises);
3. listen to a talk or conversation and understand the topic and main points;
4. listen for information required for a specific purpose, e.g., in radio broadcast, commentaries, airport and railway station announcements;
5. distinguish main points from supporting details, and relevant from irrelevant information;
6. understand and interpret messages conveyed in person or by telephone;
7. understand and respond appropriately to directive language, e.g., instruction, advice, requests and warning; and
8. understand and interpret spontaneous spoken discourse in familiar social situations.
SPEAKING
1. speak intelligibly using appropriate word stress, sentence stress and intonation patterns;
2. adopt different strategies to convey ideas effectively according to purpose, topic
and audience (including the appropriate use of polite expressions);
3. narrate incidents and events, real or imaginary in a logical sequence;
4. present oral reports or summaries; make announcements clearly and confidently;
5. express and argue a point of view clearly and effectively;
6. take active part in group discussions, showing ability to express agreement or
disagreement, to summarise ideas, to elicit the views of others, and to present own ideas;
7. express and respond to personal feelings, opinions and attitudes;
8. convey messages effectively in person or by telephone;
9. frame questions so as to elicit the desired response, and respond appropriately to questions; and
10. participate in spontaneous spoken discourse in familiar social situations.
GRAMMAR
1. Verbs
Tenses:
• present/past forms
• simple/continuous forms
• perfect forms
• future time reference
• modals
• active and passive voice
• subject-verb concord
• non-finite verb forms (infinitives and participles)
2. Sentence Structure
• connectors
• types of sentences
• affirmative/interrogative sentences negation
• exclamations
• types of phrases and clauses
- finite and non-finite subordinate clauses
- noun clauses and phrases
• indirect speech
• comparison
• nominalisation
3. Other Areas
• determiners
• pronouns
• prepositions
LITERATURE
1 Character, as revealed through
•appearance and distinguishing features
• socio-economic background,
• action/events,
• expression of feelings,
• speech and dialogues.
2 Plot/Story/Theme, emerging through main events,
• progression of events and links between them;
• sequence of events denoting theme.
3 Setting, as seen through time and place, socio-economic and cultural background, people, beliefs and attitudes.
4 Form
• rhyme
• rhythm
• simile
• metaphor
• pun
• repetition

(A) MUSIC
(B) PAINTING (CODE NO. 049)
(C) COMMERCE
(D) HOME SCIENCE (CODE NO. 064)
(E) FOUNDATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY(FIT)
(CODE No. 165)
(F) INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)
(CODE NO. 166)
(G) NATIONAL CADET CORPS (Code No. 076)

## HEALTH & PHYSICAL EDUCATION (Code No. : 506)

### HEALTH EDUCATION CLASS X

• Health hazards of modernization-pollution, effect of population explosion on health hazards, family and community life.
• Communicable and non-communicable diseases, role of host agent and environment in the spread and control of communicable diseases, body defenses, immunity-natural and acquired, importance of regular medical check-up in preventing the diseases, immunization schedule and importance of booster doses. Morbidity and mortality, in India.
National Health Programmes, Importance of pupil and people's participation in the implementation of these programmes, Primary health care, meaning and scope. Health care set-up in rural and urban areas.
• Importance of international health, international health measures to check spread of communicable diseases form one country to another, quarantine measures, World Health Organization-its functions and activities, UNICEF functions and activities, significance of World Health Day.
• Approved systems of medicine being practiced in India, specialization available, prescription and non-prescription drugs, habit-forming drugs, dangers of self-medication and going to a quack-harmful effects of alcohol and tobacco. Health set-up at the village, town, district, state and country levels, voluntary agencies working in the field of health and health education.
• Awareness of HIV and AIDS. Students may also be acquainted with evils associated with promiscuity and child and drug abuse. Adolescence education and sex-education may also be provided in a suitable manner.

### Physical Education Syllabus Class - X

Unit - I
• Tests for Measuring different Fitness Components
• Strength: Pull Ups, Push Ups, Rope Climbing
• Speed: 30 Mtrs, 40 Mtrs
• Flexibility: Sit and Reach, Tests to measure Spine Flexibility
• Endurance: 9 Min, 12 Min Run and Walk
• Agility: Shuttle Run (10 × 4)
Unit - II
• Play
• Meaning and Concept
• Characteristics of Play
• Benefits of Play
• Regional play Activities
Unit - III
• Physical Activity and Gender
• Anatomical differences between genders
• Physical activity and women
• Weight training for women
Unit - IV
• Stress and Coping
• Meaning and Causes
• Relaxation Training
• Coping Strategies
Unit - V
• Physical Activity and Quality of Life
• Meaning and Concept
• Benefits of Physical activities to promote quality of life
• Development of ethical values through physical activities
Unit - VI
• Physiological basis of physical Education
• Meaning and concept of physiology
• Measurement of blood pressure, pulse rate and respiratory rate
• Warming up and Cool down
Unit - VII
• Psychological basis of Physical education
• Meaning and importance
• Habit: formation of good habits, breaking bad habits
• Emotions: meaning, types, training for controlling emotions
Unit - VIII
• Career avenues in the field of Physical Education
• Career avenues in educational institutions, media, fitness, industries (sports), Educational qualifications in physical education
• Leading institutions of physical education
Unit - IX
• Safety and Injuries
• Self safety
• Safety of equipment
• Prevention of sports injuries
Practical
• Athletics: 50 mtrs dash, throws
• Fitness test: Fitness test of class X should be conducted on the basis of the AAPHER test and records
• should be maintained.
• Any two games: Students are required to play two games out of the listed sports:
• Badminton, • Table Tennis,• Lawn Tennis,• Judo,• Aerobics,• Karate,• Taekwondo
• Students are required to prepare a project on the regional play activities from their home town.

## ENGLISH COMMUNICATIVE SYLLABUS (CODE NO.:101)

### COURSE STRUCTURE ENGLISH CLASS X-First Term

1. read silently at varying speeds depending on the purpose of reading;*1
2. adopt different strategies for different types of text, both literary and non-literary;
3. recognise the organization of a text;
4. identify the main points of a text;
* Objectives which will not be tested in a formal examination
5. understand relations between different parts of a text through lexical and grammatical cohesion devices.
6. anticipate and predict what will come next in a text;*
7. deduce the meaning of unfamiliar lexical items in a given context;
8. consult a dictionary to obtain information on the meaning and use of lexical items;*
9. analyse, interpret, infer (and evaluate) the ideas in the text;
10. select and extract from a text information required for a specific purpose (and record it in note form)
11. transcode information from verbal to diagrammatic form;
12. retrieve and synthesise information from a range of reference material using study skills such as skimming and scanning;
13. interpret texts by relating them to other material on the same theme (and to their own experience and knowledge); and
14. read extensively on their own.
WRITING
1. express ideas in clear and grammatically correct English, using appropriate punctuation and cohesion devices;
2. write in a style appropriate for communicative purposes;
3. plan, organise and present ideas coherently by introducing, developing and concluding a topic;
4. write a clear description (e.g., of a place, a person, an object or a system);
5. write a clear account of events (e.g., a process, a narrative, a trend or a cause-effect relationship);
6. compare and contrast ideas and arrive at conclusions;
7. present an argument, supporting it with appropriate examples;
8. use an appropriate style and format to write letters (formal and informal),biographical sketches, dialogues, speeches, reports, articles,e-mails and diary entries;
9. monitor, check and revise written work;
10. expand notes into a piece of writing;
11. summarise or make notes from a given text; and
LISTENING
1. adopt different strategies according to the purpose of listening (e.g., for pleasure, for general interest,for specific information);
2. use linguistic and non-linguistic features of the context as clues to understanding and interpreting what is heard (e.g., cohesion devices, key words, intonation, gesture, background noises);
3. listen to a talk or conversation and understand the topic and main points;
4. listen for information required for a specific purpose, e.g., in radio broadcast, commentaries, airport and railway station announcements;
5. distinguish main points from supporting details, and relevant from irrelevant information;
6. understand and interpret messages conveyed in person or by telephone;
7. understand and respond appropriately to directive language, e.g., instruction, advice, requests and warning; and
8. understand and interpret spontaneous spoken discourse in familiar social situations.
SPEAKING
1. speak intelligibly using appropriate word stress, sentence stress and intonation patterns;
2. adopt different strategies to convey ideas effectively according to purpose, topic
and audience (including the appropriate use of polite expressions);
3. narrate incidents and events, real or imaginary in a logical sequence;
4. present oral reports or summaries; make announcements clearly and confidently;
5. express and argue a point of view clearly and effectively;
6. take active part in group discussions, showing ability to express agreement or
disagreement, to summarise ideas, to elicit the views of others, and to present own ideas;
7. express and respond to personal feelings, opinions and attitudes;
8. convey messages effectively in person or by telephone;
9. frame questions so as to elicit the desired response, and respond appropriately to questions; and
10. participate in spontaneous spoken discourse in familiar social situations.
GRAMMAR
1. Verbs
Tenses:
• present/past forms
• simple/continuous forms
• perfect forms
• future time reference
• modals
• active and passive voice
• subject-verb concord
• non-finite verb forms (infinitives and participles)
2. Sentence Structure
• connectors
• types of sentences
• affirmative/interrogative sentences negation
• exclamations
• types of phrases and clauses
- finite and non-finite subordinate clauses
- noun clauses and phrases
• indirect speech
• comparison
• nominalisation
3. Other Areas
• determiners
• pronouns
• prepositions
LITERATURE
1 Character, as revealed through
•appearance and distinguishing features
• socio-economic background,
• action/events,
• expression of feelings,
• speech and dialogues.
2 Plot/Story/Theme, emerging through main events,
• progression of events and links between them;
• sequence of events denoting theme.
3 Setting, as seen through time and place, socio-economic and cultural background, people, beliefs and attitudes.
4 Form
• rhyme
• rhythm
• simile
• metaphor
• pun
• repetition

NOTE: The information taken from Central Board of Secondary Education(CBSE) at cbse.nic.in, is represented here in a user-friendly way for convenience of students. User must refer CBSE for current status of information.

#### Class 10

• English +
• Maths +
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