Two unseen passages (including poems) with a variety of questions for vocabulary such as word formation and inferring meaning. The total range of the two passages including a poem or a stanza, should be around 1000-1100 words to assess comprehension, analysis, inference, evaluation and literary appreciation.
550-600 words in length (for note-making and summarising)
450-500 words in length (to test comprehension)
The passage could be of any one of the following types:
Factual passages, e.g., illustrations, description, reports
Discursive passages involving opinion, e.g., argumentative, persuasive
Literary passages, e.g., poems, extracts from fiction, biography, autobiography, travelogue, etc. In the case of a poem, the text may be shorter than the prescribed word limit.
Short Answer Question: Notices, advertisements, factual description of people, places and objects, drafting posters, drafting, accepting and declining invitations.
Long Answer Question: Letter of any of the following types based on a verbal or visual input:
a) Official letters for making inquiries, suggesting changes - registering and responding to complaints, asking for and giving information, placing orders and sending replies.
b) Letters to the editor on various social, national and international issues.
c) Application for a job including CV (Curriculum Vitae) / Resumé.
Very Long Answer Question: Sustained writing task such as writing a speech, an article for a magazine or a report based on verbal / visual input.
A variety of questions, as listed below may be asked, involving the application of grammar items in context (i.e., not in isolated sentences). The grammar syllabus will be sampled each year. Though only modals, determiners, voice and tense forms have been dealt with in class XI, however, other grammar items such as prepositions, verb forms, connectors which have been learnt earlier would also be included.
Very Short Questions and Multiple Choice Questions
Reordering of words and sentences
Composing a dialogue based on a given input
Error correction in sentences
Drafting questions / questionnaires based on given input
Questions to test comprehension at different levels and of different kinds - local, global, interpretative, inferential, evaluative and extrapolatory.
Very Short and Short Answer Questions: Two based on out of three extracts from different poems to test theme, setting and literary devices.
Short Answer Questions: Based on different prose / drama / poetry / pieces from the Literature Reader; to test local and global comprehension of ideas and languages used in the text.
Long Answer Question: Extended questions based on one of the prose texts or play in the Literature Reader to test global comprehension and for extrapolation beyond the text.
Long Answer Questions: To test understanding, appreciation, analysis, inference in a plot and writing a character sketch.
Two unseen passages with a variety of very short answer / short answer or MCQ type questions to test comprehension, interpretation and inference. Vocabulary such as word formation and inference of meaning will also be tested.
The total length of the two passages will be between 1100 and 1200 words. The passage will include two of the following:
a. Factual passages, e.g., instructions, descriptions, reports.
b. Descriptive passages involving opinion, e.g., argumentative, persuasive or interpretative text.
c. Literary passages, e.g., extract from fiction, drama, poetry, essay or biography. A poem could be of 28-35 lines.
The passages can be literary, factual or discursive to test comprehensions. The length of one passage should be between 600-700 words.
A third passage of 400-500 words for note-making and abstraction.
Short Answer Questions, e.g., advertisement and notices, designing or drafting posters, writing formal and informal invitations and replies.
Long Answer Questions: Letters based on verbal / visual input.
Letter types include
Business or official letters (for making enquiries, registering complaints, asking for and giving information, placing orders and sending replies)
Letters to the editor (giving suggestions or opinion on issues of public interest
Application for a job
Very Long Answer Questions: Two compositions based on visual and/or verbal Input may be descriptive or argumentative in nature such as an article, a debate or a speech.
Literature and Long Reading Text
a.Very Short Answer Questions - Based on an extract from poetry to test comprehension and appreciation.
b.Short Answer Questions - Based on prose / drama / poetry from both the texts.
c.Long Answer Question - Based on texts to test global comprehension and extrapolation beyond the texts to bring out the key messages and values.
d.Long Answer Question - Based on texts to test global comprehension along with analysis and extrapolation.
e.Long Answer Question - Based on theme, plot and incidents from the prescribed novels.
f.Long Answer Question - Based on understanding appreciation, analysis and interpretation of the character sketch.
Flamingo: English Reader published by NCERT
Vistas: Supplementary Reader published by NCERT
Flamingo - 1. Poets and Pancakes; 2. The Interview; 3. A Road Side Stand (Poetry) Vistas - 4. The Third Level; 5. Journey to the End of the Earth
Unit I: Relations and Functions
1. Relations and Functions
Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations.
2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Definition, range, domain, principal value branch. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.
Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero and identity matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar. Simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Noncommutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2).Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).
Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, co-factors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.
Unit III: Calculus
1. Continuity and Differentiability
Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit functions. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions
Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions. Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretation.
2. Applications of Derivatives
Applications of derivatives: rate of change of bodies, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents and normals, use of derivatives in approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations).
Integration as inverse process of differentiation.Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, Evaluation of simple integrals of the following types and problems based on them.
Definite integrals as a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic propertiesof definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.
4. Applications of the Integrals
Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, circles/parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), Area between any of the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).
5. Differential Equations
Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation.Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given.Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type:
dy/dx + py = q, where p and q are functions of x or constants.
dx/dy + px = q, where p and q are functions of y or constants.
Unit IV: Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry
Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector.Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors, scalar triple product of vectors.
2. Three - dimensional Geometry
Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points.Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines.Cartesian and vector equation of a plane.Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane.Distance of a point from a plane.
Unit V: Linear Programming
1. Linear Programming
Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions (bounded and unbounded), feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).
Unit VI: Probability
Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability. independent events, total probability, Baye's theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of random variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.
Unit I: Electrostatics
Chapter-1: Electric Charges and Fields
Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric fleld.Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).
Chapter-2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.
Unit II: Current Electricity
Chapter-3: Current Electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell,combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Chapter-4: Moving Charges and Magetism
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids, Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Chapter-5: Magnetism and Matter
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.
Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Chapter-6: Electromagnetic Induction
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents.Self and mutual induction.
Chapter-7: Alternating Current
Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current.
AC generator and transformer
Unit V: Electromagnetic waves
Chapter-8: Electromagnetic Waves
Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
Unit VI: Optics
Chapter-9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Ray Optics:: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.Scattering of light - blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Chapter-10: Wave Optics
Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen's principle, relection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Interference Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.
Unit VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
Chapter-11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).
Unit VIII: Atoms & Nuclei
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.
Chapter-13: NucleiComposition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivityalpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law.Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.
Unit IX: Electronic Devices
Chapter-14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only)Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier;Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator.Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration), basic idea of analog and digital signals, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).
Unit X: Communication Systems
Chapter-15: Communication Systems
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, satellite communication. Need for modulation, amplitude modulation and frequency modulation, advantages of frequency modulation over amplitude modulation. Basic ideas about internet, mobile telephony and global positioning system (GPS).
Unit I: Solid State
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n & p type semiconductors.
Unit II: Solutions
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult's law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, van't Hoff factor.
Unit III: Electrochemistry
Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell -electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.
Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.
Unit V: Surface Chemistry
Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis, homogenous and heterogenous activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic , lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion - types of emulsions.
Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction - electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
Unit VII: p - Block Elements
Group 15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen preparation properties & uses ; compounds of nitrogen, preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (Structure only) ; Phosphorus - allotropic forms, compounds of phosphorus: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides PCl3 , PCl5 and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties,dioxygen: Preparation, Properties and uses, classification of oxides, Ozone, Sulphure -allotropic forms; compounds of sulphure: Preparation properties and uses of sulphur-dioxide, sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; oxoacids of sulphur (Structures only).
Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals - metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property,magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactvity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
Actinoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
Unit IX: Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of
mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereo isomerism, importance of
coordination compounds (in qalitatuive inclusion, extraction of metals and biological system).
Unit X : Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation.
Haloarenes: Nature of C -X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only.
Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform freons, DDT.
Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties( of primary alcohols only), identification of
primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of
nucleophillic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes: uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides - will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit XIV: Biomolecules
Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen) importance.Proteins - Elementary idea of α - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure.
Vitamins - Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.
Unit XV: Polymers
Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization, some important
polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.
Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday life
Chemicals in medicines - analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
Chemicals in food - preservations, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
Cleansing agents - soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Unit I. Reproduction
Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms
Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Asexual reproduction Modes of reproduction-Asexual and sexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreedings devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
Chapter-3: Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
Chapter-4: Reproductive Health
Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control – Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
Unit II. Genetics and Evolution
Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance - Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorder in humans - Thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.
Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation - Lac Operon; Genome and human ganeome project; DNA fingerprinting.
Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin's contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution - Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
Unit III. Biology and Human Welfare
Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescene, drug and alcholol abuse.
Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
Improvement in food production : Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculature and Animal husbandry.
Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare
In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.
Unit IV. Biotechnology and Its Applications
Chapter-11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes
Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application
Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.
Unit V. Ecology and Environment
Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributesgrowth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services - carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).
Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation
Concept of biodiversity; patterns of biodiversity; importance of biodiversity; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
Chapter-16: Environmental Issues
Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s).
Unit I.Accounting for Partnership Firms and Companies
A.)Accounting for Partnership Firms
Partnership: features, Partnership Deed.Provisions of the Indian Partnership Act 1932 in the absence of partnership deed.Fixed v/s fluctuating capital accounts.Preparation of Profit and Loss Appropriation account- division of profit among partners, guarantee of profits.Past adjustments (relating to interest on capital, interest on drawing, salary and profit sharing ratio).Goodwill: nature, factors affecting and methods of valuation - average profit, super profit and capitalization.
Accounting for Partnership firms - Reconstitution and Dissolution.
Change in the Profit Sharing Ratio among the existing partners - sacrificing ratio, gaining ratio, accounting for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities and treatment of reserves and accumulated profits. Preparation of revaluation account and balance sheet.
Admission of a partner - effect of admission of a partner on change in the profit sharing ratio, treatment of goodwill (as per AS 26), treatment for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities, treatment of reserves and accumulated profits, adjustment of capital accounts and preparation of balance sheet.
Retirement and death of a partner: effect of retirement / death of a partner on change in profit sharing ratio, treatment of goodwill (as per AS 26), treatment for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities, adjustment of accumulated profits and reserves, adjustment of capital accounts and preparation of balance sheet. Preparation of loan account of the retiring partner.
Calculation of deceased partner‟s share of profit till the date of death. Preparation of deceased partner‟s capital account, executor‟s account and preparation of balance sheet.
Dissolution of a partnership firm: types of dissolution of a firm. Settlement of accounts -preparation of realization account, and other related accounts: capital accounts of partners and cash/bank a/c (excluding piecemeal distribution, sale to a company and insolvency of partner(s)).
B.) Accounting for Companies
Accounting for Share Capital
Share and share capital: nature and types.Accounting for share capital: issue and allotment of equity shares, private placement of shares, Employee Stock Option Plan (ESOP). Public subscription of shares - over subscription and under subscription of shares; issue at par and at premium, calls in advance and arrears (excluding interest), issue of shares for consideration other than cash.Accounting treatment of forfeiture and re-issue of shares.Disclosure of share capital in company‟s Balance Sheet.
Accounting for Debentures
Debentures: Issue of debentures at par, at a premium and at a discount. Issue of debentures for consideration other than cash; Issue of debentures with terms of redemption; debentures as collateral security-concept, interest on debentures.
Redemption of debentures: Lump sum, draw of lots and purchase in the open market (excluding ex-interest and cum-interest). Creation of
Debenture Redemption Reserve.
Note: Related sections of the Indian Companies Act, 2013 will apply.
Unit 2: Financial Statement Analysis
A.)Analysis of Financial Statements
Financial statements of a company: Statement of Profit and Loss and Balance Sheet in the prescribed form with major headings and sub headings (as per Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013).
Financial Statement Analysis: Objectives, importance and limitations.
Tools for Financial Statement Analysis: Comparative statements, common size statements, cash flow analysis, ratio analysis.
Accounting Ratios: Objectives, classification and computation.
Liquidity Ratios: Current ratio and Quick ratio.
Solvency Ratios: Debt to Equity Ratio, Total Asset to Debt Ratio, Proprietary Ratio and Interest Coverage Ratio.
Activity Ratios: Inventory Turnover Ratio, Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio, Trade Payables Turnover Ratio and Working Capital Turnover Ratio.
Profitability Ratios: Gross Profit Ratio, Operating Ratio, Operating Profit Ratio, Net Profit Ratio and Return on Investment.
B.)Cash Flow Statement
Meaning, objectives and preparation (as per AS 3 (Revised) (Indirect Method only)
Unit 3: Computerised Accounting
Overview of Computerised Accounting System.
Introduction: Application in Accounting.
Features of Computerised Accounting System.
Structure of CAS.
Software Packages: Generic; Specific; Tailored.
Accounting Application of Electronic Spreadsheet.
Concept of electronic spreadsheet.
Features offered by electronic spreadsheet.
Application in generating accounting information - bank reconciliation statement; asset accounting; loan
repayment of loan schedule, ratio analysis
Data representation - graphs, charts and diagrams.
Using Computerized Accounting System.
Steps in installation of CAS, codification and Hierarchy of account heads, creation of accounts.
Data: Entry, validation and verification.
Adjusting entries, preparation of balance sheet, profit and loss account with closing entries and opening entries. Need and security features of the system.
Database Management System (DBMS)
Concept and Features of DBMS.
DBMS in Business Application.
Generating Accounting Information - Payroll.
Unit I: Human Development: Life Span Approach (Part II)
A. Adolescence (12 - 18 years)
(i) Growth & Development - Domains and principles.
(ii) Meaning, characteristics and needs.
(iii) Influences on identity formation
(a) Biological and Physical changes-early and late matures. (Role of heredity and environment)
(b) Social, culture and media.
(c) Emotional changes.
(d) Cognitive changes.
(iv) Specific issues and concerns
(a) Eating disorders-Causes, consequences and management - Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia.
(c) Substance Abuse
(d) Related to sex
(e) Handling stress and peer pressure
(i) Young & middle adulthood: Understanding and management of new responsibilities, carrier marriage and family.
(ii) Late Adulthood/Old age:
(a) Health and Wellness: physical, social, emotional, financial, recreational needs
(b) Care for elderly (at home and outside - old age home)
(c) Anger management
Unit II: Nutrition for Self, Family and Community
(a) Meal Planning: Meaning and importance, principles and factors affecting meal planning; Nutritional needs, food preferences and modifications of diets in different age groups: infants, children, adolescence, adults, elderly and in special conditions: pregnancy and lactation (including traditional foods given in these conditions)
(i) Use of basic food groups (ICMR) and serving size in meal planning
(ii) Factors influencing selection of food: culture, family food practices, media, peer group, availability of foods, purchasing power, individual preference & health.
(b) Food safety and quality:
(i) Safe food handling (personal, storage, kitchen, cooking and serving).
(ii) Safety guards against food adulteration, definition and meaning of food adulteration as given by FSSAI (Food Safety and Standard Authority of India).
(iii) Common adulterants present in cereals, pulses, milk and milk products, fats and oils, sugar, jaggery, honey, spices and condiments.
(iv) Effects of some of the adulterants present in the foods: kesari dal, metanil yellow, argemone seeds.
(v) Food standards (FPO, Agmark, ISI).
(c) Therapeutic modification of normal diet with respect to consistency, frequency, foodstuffs, nutrients and methods of cooking.
(d) Modification of diet according to common ailments: diarrhoea, fever, jaundice, hypertension, diabetes and constipation. Physiological changes, clinical symptoms, requirements and dietary requirements in each condition.
Unit III: Money Management and Consumer Education
(a) Family Income:
(i) Various sources of family income:
COURSE STRUCTURE SOCIOLOGY CBSE CLASS -XII
Unit 1: Introducing Indian Society
Colonialism, Nationalism, Class and Community
Unit 2: Demographic Structure and Indian Society
Rural-Urban Linkages and Divisions
Unit 3: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change
Family and Kinship
The Caste System
Unit 4: Market as a Social Institution
Market as a Social Institution
Unit 5: Pattern of Social Inquality and Exclusion
Caste Prejudice, Scheduled Castes and Other Backward Classes
Marginalization of Tribal Communities
The Struggle for Women?s Equality
The Protection of Religious Minorities
Unit 6: The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
Problems of Communalism, Regionalism, Casteism and Patriarchy
Role of the State in a Plural and Unequal Society
What We Share
Unit 7: Suggestions for Project Work
Unit 8: Structural Change
Colonialism, Industrialization, Urbanization
Unit 9: Cultural Change
Modernization, Westernization, Sanskritisation, Secularization
Social Reform Movements and Laws
Caring for the Differently Abled
Unit 10: The Story of Democracy
The Constitution as an instrument of Social Change
Parties, Pressure Groups and Democratic Politics
Panchayati Raj and the Challenges of Social Transformation
Unit 11: Change and Development in Rural Society
Land Reforms, Green Revolution and Agrarian Society
Unit 12: Change and Development in Industrial Society
From Planned Industrialization to Liberalization
Changes in the Class Structure
NOTE: The information taken from Central Board of Secondary Education(CBSE) at cbse.nic.in, is represented here in a user-friendly way for convenience of students. User must refer CBSE for current status of information.